neurosciencestuff:

Research helps explain why elderly have trouble sleeping

As people grow older, they often have difficulty falling asleep and staying asleep, and tend to awaken too early in the morning. In individuals with Alzheimer’s disease, this common and troubling symptom of aging tends to be especially pronounced, often leading to nighttime confusion and wandering.

Now, a study led by researchers at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) and the University of Toronto/Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center helps explain why sleep becomes more fragmented with age. Reported online today in the journal Brain, the new findings demonstrate for the first time that a group of inhibitory neurons, whose loss leads to sleep disruption in experimental animals, are substantially diminished among the elderly and individuals with Alzheimer’s disease, and that this, in turn, is accompanied by sleep disruption.

"On average, a person in his 70s has about one hour less sleep per night than a person in his 20s," explains senior author Clifford B. Saper, MD, PhD, Chairman of Neurology at BIDMC and James Jackson Putnam Professor of Neurology at Harvard Medical School. "Sleep loss and sleep fragmentation is associated with a number of health issues, including cognitive dysfunction, increased blood pressure and vascular disease, and a tendency to develop type 2 diabetes. It now appears that loss of these neurons may be contributing to these various disorders as people age."

In 1996, the Saper lab first discovered that the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, a key cell group of inhibitory neurons, was functioning as a “sleep switch” in rats, turning off the brain’s arousal systems to enable animals to fall asleep. “Our experiments in animals showed that loss of these neurons produced profound insomnia, with animals sleeping only about 50 percent as much as normal and their remaining sleep being fragmented and disrupted,” he explains.

A group of cells in the human brain, the intermediate nucleus, is located in a similar location and has the same inhibitory neurotransmitter, galanin, as the vetrolateral preoptic nucleus in rats. The authors hypothesized that if the intermediate nucleus was important for human sleep and was homologous to the animal’s ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, then it may also similarly regulate humans’ sleep-wake cycles.

In order to test this hypothesis, the investigators analyzed data from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a community-based study of aging and dementia which began in 1997 and has been following a group of almost 1,000 subjects who entered the study as healthy 65-year-olds and are followed until their deaths, at which point their brains are donated for research.

"Since 2005, most of the subjects in the Memory and Aging Project have been undergoing actigraphic recording every two years. This consists of their wearing a small wristwatch-type device on their non-dominant arm for seven to 10 days," explains first author Andrew S. P. Lim, MD, of the University of Toronto and Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center and formerly a member of the Saper lab. The actigraphy device, which is waterproof, is worn 24 hours a day and thereby monitors all movements, large and small, divided into 15-second intervals. "Our previous work had determined that these actigraphic recordings are a good measure of the amount and quality of sleep," adds Lim.

The authors examined the brains of 45 study subjects (median age at death, 89.2), identifying ventrolateral preoptic neurons by staining the brains for the neurotransmitter galanin. They then correlated the actigraphic rest-activity behavior of the 45 individuals in the year prior to their deaths with the number of remaining ventrolateral preoptic neurons at autopsy.

"We found that in the older patients who did not have Alzheimer’s disease, the number of ventrolateral preoptic neurons correlated inversely with the amount of sleep fragmentation," says Saper. "The fewer the neurons, the more fragmented the sleep became." The subjects with the largest amount of neurons (greater than 6,000) spent 50 percent or more of total rest time in the prolonged periods of non-movement most likely to represent sleep while subjects with the fewest ventrolateral preoptic neurons (less than 3,000) spent less than 40 percent of total rest time in extended periods of rest. The results further showed that among Alzheimer’s patients, most sleep impairment seemed to be related to the number of ventrolateral preoptic neurons that had been lost.

"These findings provide the first evidence that the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus in humans probably plays a key role in causing sleep, and functions in a similar way to other species that have been studied," says Saper. "The loss of these neurons with aging and with Alzheimer’s disease may be an important reason why older individuals often face sleep disruptions. These results may, therefore, lead to new methods to diminish sleep problems in the elderly and prevent sleep-deprivation-related cognitive decline in people with dementia."

randymaverick:

ultrafacts:

Source For more posts like this, follow the Ultrafacts Blog!

I am one of the “jif” pronouncers, but honestly this fight will last until the end of times. 

http://www.nooooooooooooooo.com/

(via ultrafacts)

ultrafacts:

In the Sailor Moon universe, there was an openly homosexual character named Sailor Uranus, and her girlfriend was Sailor Neptune. Source

Want more facts? Why not follow Ultrafacts

AND there was the gay couple Kunzite - Zoisite.

Yes, indeed Zoisite is a MAN. MALE. NOT FEMALE. Fuck you very much american dub.

AAAND later in the series there is a character called “Fisheye”…he is MALE, too…thank you very much. Plus he has the hots for Mamoru (Damien).

checkeredshirtdance:

Some of you know this already, but earlier this month, I got the chance to interview Dominic Mitchell. He is a lovely, LOVELY man. We chatted for an hour about the show, including discussions of:

  • a third series
  • representations of sexuality, mental health, religion and right wing politics
  • the…

orocarni-mountains:

particlecollisions:

particlecollisions:

Self defence sprays that are legal to carry and use in the United Kingdom

Image 1: Farbgel
Image 2: StoppaRed

I’ve seen a lot of people (mostly women, for reasons which may be obvious) speaking about being worried when going out, be it alone or even with friends, both in the day and at night. I know that a lot of female friends of mine carry around a can of antiperspirant or a pot of pepper to use if they’re ever attacked. What I know a lot of people don’t realise is that there are products out there which work in a violent situation and help in catching the assailant for the best part of a week afterwards.

Known as ‘criminal identifiers’, these sprays are brightly coloured dyes which can be sprayed in the face of an attacker. Unlike things such as CS or Pepper sprays, criminal identifier sprays are legal in the UK.

There’s a few available on the market, with farbgel and Mace’s Stoppared being the mostly highly recommended.

What these sprays do is release a sticky, brightly coloured dye. It’s difficult to wipe away and stains the skin a bright red colour. No matter how hard an attacker might try to remove it from their skin and clothing, the staining typically lasts for around a week and doesn’t even start to fade until after a few days have passed.

Unlike CS and Pepper sprays (which, again, aren’t legal in the UK) criminal identifier sprays don’t cause irritation or pain to an attacker. Instead, they expand and clog up the area sprayed with a kind of sticky foam that’s difficult to wipe away. It should give you enough time to escape and report someone whose face resembles a baboon’s arse to the police.

Each can of the sprays costs around £10 each, though it may be cheaper when buying multiple canisters and if you shop around.

FarbGel 

StoppaRed UV Personal Attack Self-Defence Spray by Mace

This is an original post, but I’ve released it into the public domain. It can be shared, altered, reposted in whole or in part with no need for attribution (though obviously I would appreciate it!)

cc @misandry-mermaid

It should give you enough time to escape and report someone whose face resembles a baboon’s arse to the police.

That’s brilliant

(via seestrameathead)

Hey so I'm making cupcakes for my nieces baptism, my sister-in-law requested chocolate cupcakes with a raspberry frosting. I got super excited and went looking around your blog and I couldn't find anything! Do you think chocolate and raspberry is something you could do?
ilikethewayyoumove ilikethewayyoumove Said:

foodffs:

Hm, yes, no cupcakes.

But these two look nice:

ultrafacts:

Source Want more facts? Why not follow Ultrafacts

earthstory:

Kaieteur falls

This waterfall is Kaieteur Falls, found in the nation of Guyana within Kaieteur Falls National Park. 

This waterfall sits on the Potaro River, a tributary of the Essequibo River that drains a large portion of South America north of the Amazon Basin. 

The falls cascade over cliffs made of conglomerate and sandstone, dropping over 225 meters in the initial fall. These falls aren’t either the biggest or tallest in the world, but the drop is 4 times the height of the well-known Niagara Falls and twice the height of Victoria falls. These falls are therefore one of a few found globally that have both a very large drop, a high flow rate, and a narrow focus in its canyon, giving the waters pouring over the cliff immense power by the time they reach the base.

-JBB

Image credit: Cody H (creative Commons):
https://www.flickr.com/photos/codiferous/362100114

Read more:
http://www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com/waterfall/Kaieteur-Falls-114/

futuristech-info:

Chinese hospital implanted 50 patients with 3-D printed parts with no adverse reactions

Using a printer to produce lifesaving medical implants and body parts might sound like science fiction, but it is already a reality in China. 

Peking University Third Hospital, a top hospital in China, recently announced that its Orthopedics Department has been using enhanced implants produced by a 3-D printer in a clinical trial, with promising results. “We started clinical trials on 3-D produced implants late last year, and now we have used dozens of such implants in more than 50 patients,” said Liu Zhongjun, director with the department.

READ MORE ON PEKING UNIVERSITY

just imagine a future where patients are “scanned” and then implants are created that perfectly fit the patient with a cheap and fast 3D print.

Nice.

laboratoryequipment:

Device Captures Solar Energy, Doesn’t Block ViewA team of researchers at Michigan State Univ. has developed a new type of solar concentrator that, when placed over a window, creates solar energy while allowing people to actually see through the window.It is called a transparent luminescent solar concentrator and can be used on buildings, cell phones and any other device that has a clear surface.Read more: http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/news/2014/08/device-captures-solar-energy-doesn%E2%80%99t-block-view

laboratoryequipment:

Device Captures Solar Energy, Doesn’t Block View

A team of researchers at Michigan State Univ. has developed a new type of solar concentrator that, when placed over a window, creates solar energy while allowing people to actually see through the window.

It is called a transparent luminescent solar concentrator and can be used on buildings, cell phones and any other device that has a clear surface.

Read more: http://www.laboratoryequipment.com/news/2014/08/device-captures-solar-energy-doesn%E2%80%99t-block-view